CPM 1V is a medium carbon, high alloy tool steel which exhibits high toughness combined with high heat resistance. It is suited for hot or cold applications demanding high impact toughness which also require moderate wear resistance.
Typical Chemistry
Carbon 0.55%
Chromium 4.50%
Vanadium 1.00%
Tungsten 2.15%
Molybdenum 2.75%
Typical Applications
Hot (Warm) Work
Hot and Warm Forming Dies Hot Shear Dies
Hot Heading Dies Extrusion Dies
Forging Dies and Punches
Cold Work
High Impact Blanking Dies Cold Heading Dies
Punches Thread Rolling Dies

Relative Mechanical Properties
Impact Toughness
Its CPM microstructure gives 1V high impact toughness superior to that of the shock-resistant tool steels such as S7.

Wear Resistance
Its vanadium content imparts 1V with wear resistance slightly better than A2.

Temper Resistance
Because of its high alloy composition, CPM 1V has temper resistance similar to high speed steel (M2) and much better than most typical hot work tool steels as shown in the comparative temper curves below.
Tool Steel Comparagraph
All specimens double tempered a minimum of 2 hrs. at temperature each temper.
M2 austenitized 1975F (1080C),
CPM 1V austenitized 2000F (1095C),
H19 austenitized 2100F (1150C),
H13 austenitized 1850F (1010C), and
S7 austenitized 1725F (940C).
Thermal Treatments

Heat to 1600-1650F(870-900C), hold 2 hours, slow cool no faster than 25F (15C) per hour to 1100F (595C), then furnace cool or cool in still air to room temperature.
Annealed Hardness: About BHN 187

Annealed parts: Heat to 1100-1300F (595-705C), hold 2 hours, then furnace cool or cool in still air.
Hardened parts: Heat to 25-50F (15-30C) below original tempering temperature, hold 2 hours, then furnace cool or cool in still air.

Preheat: Heat to 1550-1600F (840-870C) Equalize.
Austenitize: 1950-2000F (1065-1095C), hold time at temperature 10-15 minutes. Recommended austenitizing temperature is 1950-2000F (1065-1095C). Higher austenitizing temperatures 2025-2050F (1110-1120C) can be used to obtain higher hardness (HRC 60-62), at a decrease in impact resistance. The lower austenitizing temperatures 1950-2000F (1065-1190C) provide the best impact toughness.
Quench: Positive pressure quench (2 bar minimum) to below 125F (50C), or salt or interrupted oil quench to about 1000F (540C), then air cool to below 125F (50C). Salt bath treatment if practical will ensure maximum attainable toughness for a given hardening treatment.
Temper: Three times at 1000-1025F (540-550C), 2 hours minimum each time.
Aim hardness: 57/59 HRC.

Surface Treatments
CPM 1V can be nitrided or PVD coated. Due to its high tempering temperature, it will retain its hardness after such processes, making it a more suitable substrate than A2 or S7. As for most tool steels, higher temperature surface treatments, such as CVD, may result in dimensional distortion.

Machinability and Grindability
The machinability and grindability of CPM 1V in the annealed condition is similar to that of A2.

Physical Properties
Elastic Modulus..................................................30 X 106 psi.......................(207 GPa)
Density..................................................................0.285 lbs./in3 (7.92 g/cm3)

Thermal Fatigue
The results of thermal fatigue tests show that CPM 1V offers an improvement over premium quality H13 and CPM 9V. Thermal fatigue tests are used to predict performance in die casting or other applications involving cyclic high temperature exposures.
1Specimens were dipped in molten aluminum at 1250F and water quenched. Every 5000 cycles specimens were microscopically examined for corner cracks.


2050F/10 min.
1950F/30 min.
Premium H13
1875F/30 min.
2050F/30 min.

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